@ARTICLE{Gajewski2023:i54312,
author="{Gajewski, Tomasz and Staszak, Natalia and Garbowski, Tomasz}",
title="{Optimal Design of Bubble Deck Concrete Slabs: Serviceability Limit State}",
year="2023",
type="scientific article",
language="en",
journal="{Materials}",
issn="1996-1944",
volume="16",
number="14",
pages="4897-1--4897-17",
doi="10.3390/ma16144897",
url="https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/16/14/4897",
keywords="lightweight structures; bubble deck concrete slabs; numerical homogenization; weight minimization; sequential quadratic programming",
abstract="{In engineering practice, one can often encounter issues related to optimization, where the goal is to minimize material consumption and minimize stresses or deflections of the structure. In most cases, these issues are addressed with finite element analysis software and simple optimization algorithms. However, in the case of optimization of certain structures, it is not so straightforward. An example of such constructions are bubble deck ceilings, where, in order to reduce the dead weight, air cavities are used, which are regularly arranged over the entire surface of the ceiling. In the case of these slabs, the flexural stiffness is not constant in all its cross-sections, which means that the use of structural finite elements (plate or shell) for static calculations is not possible, and therefore, the optimization process becomes more difficult. This paper presents a minimization procedure of the weight of bubble deck slabs using numerical homogenization and sequential quadratic programming with constraints. Homogenization allows for determining the effective stiffnesses of the floor, which in the next step are sequentially corrected by changing the geometrical parameters of the floor and voids in order to achieve the assumed deflection. The presented procedure allows for minimizing the use of material in a quick and effective way by automatically determining the optimal parameters describing the geometry of the bubble deck floor cross-section. For the optimal solution, the concrete weight of the bubble deck slab was reduced by about 23% in reference to the initial design, and the serviceability limit state was met.}",
}