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Interrelations between Iron and Vitamin A - Studied Using Systems Approach


[ 1 ] Instytut Informatyki, Wydział Informatyki i Telekomunikacji, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.3] Information and communication technology

Year of publication


Published in

International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: vol. 23 | Journal number: iss. 3

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • iron homeostasis
  • iron deficiency
  • vitamin a deficiency
  • modeling
  • petri nets
  • t-invariants

EN A deficiency of vitamin A (VAD) and iron is the most common nutritional problem affecting people worldwide. Given the scale of the problem, the interactions between vitamin A and iron levels are widely studied. However, the exact mechanism of the impact of vitamin A on the regulation of iron metabolism remains unclear. An extremely significant issue becomes a better understanding of the nature of the studied biological phenomenon, which is possible by using a systems approach through developing and analyzing a mathematical model based on a Petri net. To study the considered system, the t-cluster analysis, the significance analysis, and the analysis of the average number of transition firings were performed. The used analyses have allowed distinguishing the most important mechanisms (both subprocesses and elementary processes) positively and negatively regulating an expression of hepcidin and allowed to distinguish elementary processes with a higher frequency of occurrence compared to others. The analysis also allowed to resolve doubts about the discrepancy in literature reports, where VAD leads to positive regulation of hepcidin expression or to negative regulation of hepcidin expression. The more detailed analyses have shown that VAD more frequently positively stimulates hepcidin expression and this mechanism is more significant than the mechanism inhibiting hepcidin expression indirectly by VAD.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

1189-1 - 1189-18





Article Number: 1189

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

in press

Points of MNiSW / journal


Impact Factor

5.924 [List 2020]

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