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A Quantum Approach to the Problem of Charging Electric Cars on a Motorway


[ 1 ] Instytut Informatyki, Wydział Informatyki i Telekomunikacji, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Wydział Informatyki i Telekomunikacji, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee | [ SzD ] doctoral school student

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.3] Information and communication technology

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 16 | Journal number: iss. 1

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • electric motor vehicle
  • battery charging
  • power
  • energy
  • scheduling
  • parallel unrelated machines
  • quantum computing
  • quantum approximate optimization algorithm
  • quantum annealing

EN In this paper, the problem of charging electric motor vehicles on a motorway is considered. Charging points are located alongside the motorway. It is assumed that there are a number of vehicles on a given section of a motorway. In the motorway, there are several nodes, and for each vehicle, the entering and the leaving nodes are known, as well as the time of entrance. For each vehicle, we know the total capacity of its battery, and the current amount of energy in the battery when entering the motorway. It is also assumed that for each vehicle, there is a finite set of speeds it can use when traveling the motorway. The speed is chosen when entering the motorway, and cannot be changed before reaching the charging station. For each speed, there is given a corresponding power usage; the higher the speed, the larger the power usage. Each vehicle can only use one charger, and when its battery is full, the amount of energy is sufficient for reaching the outgoing node. We look for a feasible solution to the problem, i.e., a solution in which no vehicle has to wait for a charger. The problem is formulated as a problem of scheduling independent, nonpreemptable jobs in parallel, unrelated machines under an additional doubly constrained resource, which is power. Quantum approaches to solve the defined problem are proposed. They use the quantum approximate optimization algorithm and the quantum annealing technique. A computational experiment is presented and discussed. Some conclusions and directions for future research are given.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

442-1 - 442-20





Article Number: 442

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3,2 [List 2022]

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