Depending on the amount of data to process, file generation may take longer.

If it takes too long to generate, you can limit the data by, for example, reducing the range of years.


Download file Download BibTeX


Efficiency Maximization for Battery-Powered OFDM Transmitter via Amplifier Operating Point Adjustment


[ 1 ] Instytut Radiokomunikacji, Wydział Informatyki i Telekomunikacji, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.3] Information and communication technology

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 23 | Journal number: iss. 1

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • OFDM
  • nonlinear power amplifier
  • energy efficiency
  • spectral efficiency
  • battery model

EN While Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a dominating spectrum access technology in modern, wideband access networks, it is important to maximize its transmission efficiency considering the underlying radio front-end characteristics. A practical front-end contains nonlinear components, e.g., a Power Amplifier (PA), resulting in nonlinear distortion being injected into OFDM band deteriorating symbols detection. A PA operating point, defined here by Input Back-Off (IBO), can be adjusted to balance the wanted signal power and nonlinear distortion power. While it is the most common to maximize the spectral efficiency (SE), recently, energy efficiency (EE) maximization gained momentum. However, EE maximization requires, in addition to PA nonlinearity modeling, modeling of the power consumption of the PA and all other transmitter components. While it is commonly overlooked, if a battery is used to power the transmitter, its model should be considered as well. This paper derives mathematical expressions for EE and SE of an OFDM transmitter considering Rapp and soft-limiter models of PA nonlinearity, class A, class B, and perfect PA power consumption models, and two battery models: perfect and worst-case. While closed-form expressions cannot be obtained for most of the derived integrals, numerical methods have been used to obtain the optimal IBO value in each case. The numerical results show, in addition to optimal IBO values, the expected Signal-to-Noise and Distortion Ratios (SNDRs). It is shown that the optimal IBO value changes significantly with the wireless channel properties, utilized hardware architecture, or the utilized optimization goal. As such, the proposed optimization is an important topic for 5G and beyond transmitters.

Pages (from - to)

1 - 14





article number: 474

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Full text of article

Download file

Access level to full text


Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3,9 [List 2022]

This website uses cookies to remember the authenticated session of the user. For more information, read about Cookies and Privacy Policy.