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Title

Efficiency Maximization for Battery-Powered OFDM Transmitter via Amplifier Operating Point Adjustment

Authors

[ 1 ] Instytut Radiokomunikacji, Wydział Informatyki i Telekomunikacji, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.3] Information and communication technology

Year of publication

2023

Published in

Sensors

Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 23 | Journal number: iss. 1

Article type

scientific article

Publication language

english

Keywords
EN
  • OFDM
  • nonlinear power amplifier
  • energy efficiency
  • spectral efficiency
  • battery model
Abstract

EN While Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a dominating spectrum access technology in modern, wideband access networks, it is important to maximize its transmission efficiency considering the underlying radio front-end characteristics. A practical front-end contains nonlinear components, e.g., a Power Amplifier (PA), resulting in nonlinear distortion being injected into OFDM band deteriorating symbols detection. A PA operating point, defined here by Input Back-Off (IBO), can be adjusted to balance the wanted signal power and nonlinear distortion power. While it is the most common to maximize the spectral efficiency (SE), recently, energy efficiency (EE) maximization gained momentum. However, EE maximization requires, in addition to PA nonlinearity modeling, modeling of the power consumption of the PA and all other transmitter components. While it is commonly overlooked, if a battery is used to power the transmitter, its model should be considered as well. This paper derives mathematical expressions for EE and SE of an OFDM transmitter considering Rapp and soft-limiter models of PA nonlinearity, class A, class B, and perfect PA power consumption models, and two battery models: perfect and worst-case. While closed-form expressions cannot be obtained for most of the derived integrals, numerical methods have been used to obtain the optimal IBO value in each case. The numerical results show, in addition to optimal IBO values, the expected Signal-to-Noise and Distortion Ratios (SNDRs). It is shown that the optimal IBO value changes significantly with the wireless channel properties, utilized hardware architecture, or the utilized optimization goal. As such, the proposed optimization is an important topic for 5G and beyond transmitters.

Pages (from - to)

1 - 14

DOI

10.3390/s23010474

URL

https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/23/1/474

Comments

article number: 474

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Full text of article

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Access level to full text

public

Ministry points / journal

100.0

Impact Factor

3.847 [List 2021]

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