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Shoulder Range of Motion Measurement Using Inertial Measurement Unit–Concurrent Validity and Reliability


[ 1 ] Instytut Mechaniki Stosowanej, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.9] Mechanical engineering

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 23 | Journal number: iss. 17

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • MU
  • wearable movement sensors
  • shoulder
  • range of motion
  • validation

EN This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of the RSQ Motion sensor and its validity against the Propriometer and electronic goniometer in measuring the active range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder. The study included 15 volunteers (mean age 24.73 ± 3.31) without any clinical symptoms with no history of trauma, disease, or surgery to the upper limb. Four movements were tested: flexion, abduction, external and internal rotation. Validation was assessed in the full range of active shoulder motion. Reliability was revised in full active ROM, a fixed angle of 90 degrees for flexion and abduction, and 45 degrees for internal and external rotation. Each participant was assessed three times: on the first day by both testers and on the second day only by one of the testers. Goniometer and RSQ Motion sensors showed moderate to excellent correlation for all tested movements (ICC 0.61–0.97, LOA < 23 degrees). Analysis of inter-rater reliability showed good to excellent agreement between both testers (ICC 0.74–0.97, LOA 13–35 degrees). Analysis of intra-rater reliability showed moderate to a good agreement (ICC 0.7–0.88, LOA 22–37 degrees). The shoulder internal and external rotation measurement with RSQ Motion sensors is valid and reliable. There is a high level of inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for the RSQ Motion sensors and Propriometer.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

7499-1 - 7499-15





Article Number: 7499

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3.9 [List 2022]

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