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Impact on the sensation of consonance by controlling spectral components of simultaneous pitches consisting a chord in sound synthesis using the additive method


Year of publication


Published in

Vibrations in Physical Systems

Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 34 | Journal number: no. 2

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • consonance
  • dissonance
  • sound timbre
  • additive synthesis

EN In pitched sounds the ratios between frequencies of spectral components remain close to natural numbers. In acoustic instruments these ratios deviate from exact values due to damping or boundary conditions, complicating use of musical systems defining frequency ratios associated with musical intervals. If such system is imposed on the fundamental frequencies of pitches consisting a chord, higher spectral components may deviate noticeably, strengthening or weakening the effects of beating and roughness caused by their proximity, and changing chord characteristics in terms of consonance-dissonance gradation. Unlike acoustic instruments, sound synthesizers can precisely adjust components of generated signal, and use this phenomenon as a controllable timbre effect. For this purpose spectral components of a chord within the range of beating and roughness are modified to gradually strengthen or weaken both phenomena. The study presents the assumptions of the effect and its implementation in a sound synthesizer based on the additive method.

Pages (from - to)

2023209-1 - 2023209-10





Article number: 2023209

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

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