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An asymmetric MnO2|activated carbon supercapacitor with highly soluble choline nitrate-based aqueous electrolyte for sub-zero temperatures


[ 1 ] Faculty of Chemical Technology, Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology (PUT), Poznan 60965, Poland | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[7.6] Chemical sciences

Year of publication


Published in

Electrochimica Acta

Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: vol. 425

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • MnO2
  • CNTs
  • Choline nitrate
  • Pseudocapacitance
  • Low temperature
  • Supercapacitor

EN MnO2|activated carbon supercapacitors are attractive power devices that rival the electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) due to high reachable voltage. However, they greatly suffer from performance loss at low temperature as most of aqueous electrolytes freeze below ca. -10°C. Here, a concentrated choline nitrate-based (5 mol/L aqueous ChNO3) electrolyte is applied to extend the working temperature range due to its eutectic-like properties. In such electrolyte, water acts as hydrogen bond donor for nitrate anion and low hydration energy for large choline cations favors ionic transport. The MnO2/CNT composite electrode with a hierarchical structure has been synthesized by hydrothermal process. The presence of CNTs as core component facilitates the electron conduction, while the two-dimensional MnO2 flakes grown on the surface provide electrolyte transport pathways and improve the interfacial processes (pseudocapacitive charge/discharge). Thanks to the low hydration of choline cation, the individual activated carbon (AC, negative) and MnO2/CNT (positive) electrodes are charged symmetrically up to a cell voltage of 1.8 V. Overall, due to the wide electrochemical stability window (∼2.0 V) and anti-freezing properties of ChNO3-based aqueous electrolyte and the hierarchical design of the MnO2/CNT composite, the asymmetric supercapacitor operates down to -40 °C and displays excellent energy and coulombic efficiency with no loss of performance after several thousand cycles. This work provides a new possibility on the low temperature application of high voltage supercapacitors.

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Pages (from - to)

140706-1 - 140706-9





Article number: 140706

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CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

czasopismo hybrydowe

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final published version

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at the time of publication

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