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The Role of Macrophage Dynamics in Atherosclerosis Analyzed Using a Petri Net-Based Model


[ 1 ] Instytut Informatyki, Wydział Informatyki i Telekomunikacji, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.3] Information and communication technology

Year of publication


Published in

Applied Sciences

Journal year: 2024 | Journal volume: vol. 14 | Journal number: iss. 8

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • macrophage
  • atherosclerosis
  • mathematical modeling
  • Petri nets
  • knockout analysis

EN Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory and oxidative stress-mediated disease impacting the arterial system, stands as a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The complexity of this disease, driven by numerous factors, requires a thorough investigation of its underlying mechanisms. In our study, we explore the complex interplay between cholesterol homeostasis, macrophage dynamics, and atherosclerosis development using a Petri net-based model anchored in credible, peer-reviewed biological and medical research. Our findings underscore the significant role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) inhibition in reducing atherosclerotic plaque formation by modulating inflammatory responses and lipid accumulation. Furthermore, our model highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting the C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12)/ C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) pathway to hinder hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells’ (HSPCs’) mobilization and plaque development. Based on the results obtained, which are in agreement with current studies, additional strategies are also proposed, such as decreasing M1 macrophage polarization for therapeutic gains, opening the door to future research and novel treatment approaches.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

3219-1 - 3219-23





Article Number: 3219

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

2,5 [List 2023]

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