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Energy-Optimal Structures of HVAC System for Cleanrooms as a Function of Key Constant Parameters and External Climate


[ 1 ] Instytut Inżynierii Środowiska i Instalacji Budowlanych, Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska i Energetyki, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska i Energetyki, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee | [ D ] phd student

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.9] Environmental engineering, mining and energy

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: vol. 15 | Journal number: iss. 1

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • cleanrooms
  • ventilation
  • air conditioning
  • energy consumption
  • optimization

PL This article presents approximating relations defining energy-optimal structures of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) system for cleanrooms as a function of key constant parameters and energy-optimal control algorithms for various options of heat recovery and external climate. The annual unit primary energy demand of the HVAC system for thermodynamic air treatment was adopted as the objective function. Research was performed for wide representative variability ranges of key constant parameters: cleanliness class – Cs (ISO5÷ISO8), unit cooling loads – qj (100÷500) W/m2 and percentage of outdoor air – αo (5÷100) %. HVAC systems are described with vectors x with coordinates defined by constant parameters and decision variables and the results are presented in the form of approximating functions illustrating zones of energy-optimal structures of HVAC system vectors x = f (Cs, qj, αo). In the optimization procedure, the type of heat recovery as an element of optimal structures of HVAC system and algorithms of energy-optimal control were defined based on an objective function and simulation models. It was proven that using heat recovery is profitable only for HVAC systems without recirculation and with internal recirculation (savings of 5÷66% depending on the type of heat recovery and the climate), while it is not profitable (or generates losses) for HVAC systems with external recirculation or external and internal recirculation at the same time.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

313-1 - 313-41





Article Number: 313

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Points of MNiSW / journal


Impact Factor

3.004 [List 2020]

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