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The frame design of a three-wheeled vehicle for a student competition using topology optimization


[ 1 ] Instytut Mechaniki Stosowanej, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.9] Mechanical engineering

Year of publication


Published in

International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM)

Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: vol. 16 | Journal number: iss. 3

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • topology optimization
  • SIMP
  • multiple load cases
  • bicycle frame
  • electrical power

EN The SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization) is one of the topology optimization methods. Its purpose is to eliminate ma-terial from those elements belonging to the design area for which the substitute material created during this process has a relatively low density. The article presents a method of designing and manufacturing a vehicle frame aimed for a student competition, which is comparable to practices used in large manufacturing companies. Topology optimization was applied in the design of the suspension and the frame of the three-wheeled vehicle. Optimization method SIMP was used, including "multiple load cases", where three load cases were analysed. Commercial Altair software: HyperWorks was used for structure optimization. The weight of the manufactured frame has been reduced by 57% while maintaining the appropriate rigidity of the vehicle structure. The re-sulting shape was the basis to develop a vehicle that took part in student competitions organized in Germany. The applied opti-mization was appreciated and the vehicle took, among others, second place in the category of "construction".

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

927 - 942




Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor


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