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Angle of arrival estimation in a multi-antenna software defined radio system: impact of hardware and radio environment


[ 1 ] Wydział Informatyki i Telekomunikacji, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Instytut Radiokomunikacji, Wydział Informatyki i Telekomunikacji, Politechnika Poznańska | [ S ] student | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.3] Information and communication technology

Year of publication


Published in

Wireless Networks

Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: in press

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • Angle-of-Arrival
  • Direction-of-arrival
  • phase synchronization
  • software defined radio

EN Contemporary wireless communication transceivers can utilize their multiple antennas to improve positioning abilities. Angle of Arrival (AoA) estimation utilizes shifts in phase between the signal of interest arriving at different receiving antennas. Software Defined Radio (SDR) USRP B210 and GNU Radio implementing the Root Multiple Signal Classifi- cation (Root-MUSIC) algorithm are used in this paper. However, this setup requires the consideration of errors caused by hardware and radio environment. The impact of these effects is shown using an analytical model, assessed, mostly by measurements, and relevant solutions are proposed. The hardware distortions are caused mostly by synchronization errors. The intricacies of the most problematic phase synchronization are investigated with the wired setup showing, e.g., changes with frequency or gain. Both synchronizations emitting calibration tone from the same radio front end, resulting in crosstalk, or a separate one are tested. Recommendations enhancing the performance of the system and alleviating hardware imperfections are provided in this paper. The accuracy of AoA estimation is degraded by multipath propagation or radio interference. A signal processing scheme including filtering has been proposed. A set of over-the-air experiments assessed the performance of the system. The presented and publicly available software package, scalable to a higher number of RX antennas, enables straightforward implementation by other researchers.

Pages (from - to)

[1] - [12]




License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

czasopismo hybrydowe

Open Access Text Version

final author's version

Release date

27.07.2022 (Date presumed)

Full text of article

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Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

2.701 [List 2021]

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