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Detection and analysis of Clostridioides difficile spores in a hospital environment


[ 1 ] Instytut Inżynierii Środowiska i Instalacji Budowlanych, Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska i Energetyki, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.10] Environmental engineering, mining and energy

Year of publication


Published in

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: vol. 19 | Journal number: iss. 23

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • patient safety
  • risk management
  • Clostridioides difficile spores
  • C diff Banana Broth

EN Clostridioides difficile, due to its long survival time in a hospital environment, is considered to be one of the most frequent factors in healthcare-associated infections. Patient care requires not only rapid and accurate diagnosis, but also knowledge of individual risk factors for infections, e.g., with C. difficile, in various clinical conditions. The goal of this study was to analyse the degree of contamination of a hospital environment with C. difficile spores. Culturing was performed using C diff Banana BrothTM medium, which enables germination of the spores of these bacteria. Samples were collected from inanimate objects within a hospital environment in a specialist hospital in Poland. The results of the study demonstrated the presence of 18 positive samples of Clostridioides spp. (15.4%). Of these, C. difficile spores were detected in six samples, Clostridioides perfringens in eight samples, Clostridioides sporogenes in two samples and Clostridioides innocuum and Clostridioides baratii in one sample each. Among the six samples of C. difficile, a total of four strains which produce the B toxin were cultured. The binary toxin related to ribotype 027 was not detected in our study. Nosocomial infection risk management is a significant problem, mainly concerning the issues of hygiene maintenance, cleaning policy and quality control, and awareness of infection risk.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

15670-1 - 15670-10





Article Number: 15670

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


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