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Calibration procedure and biomechanical validation of an universal six degree‑of‑freedom robotic system for hip joint testing


[ 1 ] Instytut Mechaniki Stosowanej, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.8] Mechanical engineering

Year of publication


Published in

Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research

Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 18 | Journal number: iss. 1

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • Hip joint
  • Six degree‑of‑freedom robot
  • Biomechanics
  • Testing
  • Kinematics

EN Purpose: Among various test methods for different human joints, the use of robot systems has attracted major interest and inherits the potential to become a gold standard in biomechanical testing in the future. A key issue associated with those robot-based platforms is the accurate definition of parameters, e.g., tool center point (TCP), length of tool or anatomical trajectories of movements. These must be precisely correlated to the physiological parameters of the examined joint and its corresponding bones. Exemplified for the human hip joint, we are creating an accurate calibration procedure for a universal testing platform by using a six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) robot and optical tracking system for recognition of anatomical movements of the bone samples. Methods: A six degree-of-freedom robot (TX 200, Stäubli) has been installed and configured. The physiological range of motion of the hip joint composed of a femur and a hemipelvis was recorded with an optical 3D movement and deformation analysis system (ARAMIS, GOM GmbH). The recorded measurements were processed by automatic transformation procedure (created in Delphi software) and evaluated in 3D CAD system. Results: The physiological ranges of motion were reproduced for all degrees of freedom with the six degree-of-freedom robot in adequate accuracy. With the establishment of a special calibration procedure by using a combination of different coordinate systems, we were able to achieve a standard deviation of the TCP depending of the axis between 0.3 and 0.9 mm and for the length of tool between + 0.67 and − 0.40 mm (3D CAD processing) resp. + 0.72 mm to − 0.13 mm (Delphi transformation). The accuracy between the manual and robotic movement of the hip shows an average deviation between − 0.36 and + 3.44 mm for the points on the movement trajectories. Conclusion: A six degree-of-freedom robot is appropriate to reproduce the physiological range of motion of the hip joint. The described calibration procedure is universal and can be used for hip joint biomechanical tests allowing to apply clinically relevant forces and investigate testing stability of reconstructive osteosynthesis implant/endoprosthetic fixations, regardless of the length of the femur, size of the femoral head and acetabulum or whether the entire pelvis or only the hemipelvis will be used.

Pages (from - to)

164-1 - 164-15





Article Number: 164

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

in press

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

2.677 [List 2021]

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