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Cholesterol Metabolism Pathways Disturbances in Atherosclerosis - Analyses Using Stochastic Petri Net-Based Model


[ 1 ] Instytut Informatyki, Wydział Informatyki i Telekomunikacji, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.3] Information and communication technology

Year of publication


Published in

Applied Sciences

Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 13 | Journal number: iss. 10

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • cholesterol metabolism
  • atherosclerosis
  • mathematical modeling
  • Petri nets
  • stochastic Petri nets

EN Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that affects large arteries and causes much morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite ongoing research for several decades, it is still a global health problem that cannot be stopped and cured completely. Furthermore, the development of this disease is contributed to by various processes, primarily disturbances in cholesterol metabolism, local low-grade inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. In this work, a stochastic Petri net model was constructed and subsequently analyzed to examine the impact of these factors on the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The use of knockout- and simulation-based analysis allowed for a comprehensive investigation of the studied phenomena. Our research has demonstrated that while cholesterol is a contributing factor in atherosclerosis, blocking its impact alone is insufficient in halting the progression of this disorder. Inhibition of oxidative stress is also important when blocking the impact of phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor-1 (PPI-1), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), as our model shows that this action reduces the number of foam cells underlying atherosclerosis. The results obtained further support the previous observations that the combined treatment is significantly effective in enhancing therapeutic efficacy against atherosclerosis.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

6149-1 - 6149-28





Article Number: 6149

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

2,7 [List 2022]

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