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Influence of Die Land Length on the Maximum Extrusion Force and Dry Ice Pellets Density in Ram Extrusion Process


[ 1 ] Instytut Konstrukcji Maszyn, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee | [ SzD ] doctoral school student

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.9] Mechanical engineering

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 16 | Journal number: iss. 12

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • densification
  • extrusion
  • single-cavity die
  • die land length
  • dry ice
  • carbon dioxide

EN The management of waste materials, particularly non-biodegradable substances such as plastics and composites, is an increasingly pressing issue. Energy efficiency in industrial processes is crucial throughout their life cycle, including the handling of materials such as carbon dioxide (CO2), which has a significant environmental impact. This study focuses on the conversion of solid CO2 into pellets using ram extrusion, a widely used technique. The length of the die land (DL) in this process plays a critical role in determining the maximum extrusion force and the density of dry ice pellets. However, the influence of DL length on the characteristics of dry ice snow, known as compressed carbon dioxide (CCD), remains understudied. To address this research gap, the authors conducted experimental trials using a customized ram extrusion setup, varying the DL length while keeping the other parameters constant. The results demonstrate a substantial correlation between DL length and both the maximum extrusion force and dry ice pellets density. Increasing the DL length leads to a decreased extrusion force and optimized pellet density. These findings provide valuable insights for optimizing the ram extrusion process of dry ice pellets and improving waste management, energy efficiency, and product quality in industries utilizing this technique.

Pages (from - to)

4281-1 - 4281-11





article number: 4281

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Full text of article

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Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3.4 [List 2022]

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