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Shoulder Range of Motion Measurement Using Inertial Measurement Unit - Validation with a Robot Arm


[ 1 ] Instytut Mechaniki Stosowanej, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.9] Mechanical engineering

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 23 | Journal number: iss. 12

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • inertial measurement unit
  • sensor accuracy
  • validation
  • shoulder
  • range of motion

EN The invention of inertial measurement units allowed the construction of sensors suitable for human motion tracking that are more affordable than expensive optical motion capture systems, but there are a few factors influencing their accuracy, such as the calibration methods and the fusion algorithms used to translate sensor readings into angles. The main purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of a single RSQ Motion sensor in comparison to a highly precise industrial robot. The secondary objectives were to test how the type of sensor calibration affects its accuracy and whether the time and magnitude of the tested angle have an impact on the sensor’s accuracy. We performed sensor tests for nine repetitions of nine static angles made by the robot arm in eleven series. The chosen robot movements mimicked shoulder movements in a range of motion test (flexion, abduction, and rotation). The RSQ Motion sensor appeared to be very accurate, with a root-mean-square error below 0.15°. Furthermore, we found a moderate-to-strong correlation between the sensor error and the magnitude of the measured angle but only for the sensor calibrated with the gyroscope and accelerometer readings. Although the high accuracy of the RSQ Motion sensors was demonstrated in this paper, they require further study on human subjects and comparisons to the other devices known as the gold standards in orthopedics.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

5364-1 - 5364-12





Article Number: 5364

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3.9 [List 2022]

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