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An Experimental Study on the Impact of Layer Height and Annealing Parameters on the Tensile Strength and Dimensional Accuracy of FDM 3D Printed Parts


[ 1 ] Instytut Technologii Materiałów, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.9] Mechanical engineering

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 16 | Journal number: iss. 13

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • PLA
  • PETG
  • annealing
  • layer thickness
  • regression model
  • mechanical testing

EN This study investigates the impact of annealing time, temperature, and layer height on the tensile strength and dimensional change of three 3D printing materials (PLA, PETG, and carbon fiber-reinforced PETG). Samples with varying layer heights (0.1 mm, 0.2 mm, and 0.3 mm) were annealed at temperatures ranging from 60–100 °C for 30, 60, and 90 min. Tensile tests were conducted, and regression models were developed to analyze the effects of these parameters on tensile strength. The models exhibited high accuracy, with a maximum deviation of only 5% from measured validation values. The models showed that layer height has a significantly bigger influence on tensile strength than annealing time and temperature. Optimal combinations of parameters were identified for each material, with PLA performing best at 0.1 mm/60 min/90 °C and PETG and PETGCF achieving optimal tensile strength at 0.1 mm/90 min/60 °C. PETGCF demonstrated smallest dimensional change after annealing and had the best modulus of elasticity of all the materials. The study employed experimental testing and regression models to assess the results across multiple materials under consistent conditions, contributing valuable insights to the ongoing discussion on the influence of annealing in 3D-printed parts.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

4574-1 - 4574-19





Article Number: 4574

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3.4 [List 2022]

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