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Quantitative analysis of aviation incidents: A comprehensive study on bird strikes and safety improvement opportunities


[ 1 ] Instytut Silników Spalinowych i Napędów, Wydział Inżynierii Lądowej i Transportu, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.7] Civil engineering, geodesy and transport

Year of publication


Published in

Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics

Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 8 | Journal number: no. 2

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • incidents
  • safety management systems
  • identify threats
  • human factor
  • procedures

EN Safety in aviation has various connotations. According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), it is a state in which the possibility of harm to people and property is minimised and maintained within a continuous process of identifying threats and managing safety risks at an acceptable level or below an acceptable level. Actionsrelated to threat identification can be reactive, proactive, or predictive. Reactive actions aim to verify what happened, why, and how to prevent it from recurring. For this purpose, incidents that occurred in the past are analysed. By Polish law, the Commission for Investigating Aviation Accidents investigates accidents and serious incidents, while incidents mostly fall under the responsibility of the aviation organisation in which the incident occurred. Therefore, this article aims to identify threats causing incidents. Three thousand two hundred aviation incidents reported between 2017 and 2022 to the Civil Aviation Office as part of the mandatory and voluntary event reporting system were analysed. The identified causes, due to the diversity of their description, were divided into four groups. The first group consists of human factors, representing inadequate actions by pilots, crews, or individuals who caused a situation of danger. The second group comprises errors in the operation of technical objects, including aircraft. This group also includes situations where foreign objects violate airspaceor minimum conditions are breached. The next group includes environmental causes such as wild animals, birds, and weather conditions. The last group consists ofprocedures related to flight phases.

Pages (from - to)

229 - 238




License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


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