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Application of Under-Impedance Criterion to Protect against Effects of Phase-to-Phase Short Circuits in Medium-Voltage Networks


[ 1 ] Instytut Elektroenergetyki, Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska i Energetyki, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.10] Environmental engineering, mining and energy

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2024 | Journal volume: vol. 17 | Journal number: iss. 2

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • under-impedance protection
  • phase-to-phase short circuits
  • medium-voltage networks
  • overcurrent protection

EN Common overcurrent criteria used to detect phase-to-phase short circuits in medium-voltage (MV) networks in some cases do not bring the expected results. In particular, this applies to instantaneous overcurrent protections in lines with variable ranges and lines leading to local power plants (LPP), which generate a short-circuit current slightly greater than the rated current. When using overcurrent protections, there are some problems with ensuring the appropriate sensitivity and selectivity. This article proposes a protection based on impedance measurement against the effects of phase-to-phase short circuits in MV lines. The protection can be used at switchgears and also at protection points (PP) located deep in the network. The under-impedance criterion has a range independent of the value of the short-circuit current, and it can be alternative or complement to classic overcurrent protection. The introduction of these criteria allows the protection range to be independent of the type of short circuit and the short-circuit power on the busbar, and to determine this range more precisely. The under-impedance protection is particularly useful in conditions of a growing number of energy sources deep inside the networks and its automation. The main idea was to develop a uncomplicated characteristic that would ensure the possibility of setting the under-impedance protection by people who are not specialists in the field of distance protections. The characteristics have been optimally developed both in terms of the area of detected impedances and easy implementation, operation, and configuration.

Pages (from - to)

505-1 - 505-21





Article number: 505

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Full text of article

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Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3,2 [List 2022]

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