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Ideally realized sodium-ion capacitor via irreversible oxidation of sodium azide to pre-metalate the anodic host


[ 1 ] Instytut Chemii i Elektrochemii Technicznej, Wydział Technologii Chemicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ SzD ] doctoral school student | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[7.6] Chemical sciences

Year of publication


Published in

Journal of Power Sources

Journal year: 2024 | Journal volume: vol. 609

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • Sodium-ion capacitor
  • Activated carbon EDL electrode
  • Sodium azide sacrificial material
  • Irreversible oxidation
  • Hard carbon pre-sodiation
  • Nitrogen gas by-product

EN Herein, sodium azide (NaN3) is used as sacrificial cathodic material to address the metal deficiency issues in the anodic host of sodium-ion capacitors (NICs). Electrochemical online mass spectroscopy at C/40 (C theoretical capacity of NaN3) on a NaN3–C65 electrode percolated by carbon black (C65 conductive additive) demonstrates a complete irreversibility of the oxidation process, with the evolution of N2 (1.5 mol for 1 mol of NaN3) as sole by-product. Gas adsorption analysis at 77 K on pristine and oxidized NaN3-AC (AC = activated carbon) electrodes reveals a noteworthy regeneration of the porous texture of activated carbon after oxidation. Laminated NaN3-AC//HCM cells (HCM: hard carbon) were prepared, and sodium was transferred to the HCM negative electrode by electrochemical oxidation of NaN3, giving rise to AC//NaxHCM sodium-ion capacitors. Over a voltage range from 2.0 V to 3.8 V, the NICs demonstrated impressive capacitance retention of 90%, and energy efficiency of 95% after 15,000 galvanostatic cycles. In terms of energy and power performance, the NICs exhibited output energy of 38 Wh kg−1 up to 4 kW kg−1. These results demonstrate that sodium azide is an ideal “zero dead mass” sacrificial material holding the potential for the one-step realization of cost-effective NICs presenting attractive electrochemical characteristics.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

234637-1 - 234637-12





Article Number: 234637

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

8,1 [List 2023]

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