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Real Domestic Hot Water Consumption in Residential Buildings and Its Impact on Buildings’ Energy Performance - Case Study in Poland


[ 1 ] Instytut Inżynierii Środowiska i Instalacji Budowlanych, Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska i Energetyki, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee | [ S ] student

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.10] Environmental engineering, mining and energy

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2021 | Journal volume: vol. 14 | Journal number: no. 16

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • domestic hot water consumption
  • energy performance of buildings
  • domestic hot water
  • energy certification
  • water resources

EN A building’s energy consumption is assessed considering the energy required for heating, cooling, lighting, and domestic hot water (DHW). Methodologies used to calculate energy certificates in European Union countries consider hot water consumption rates per person or per heated (floor) area, giving wide-ranging values (35–88 dm3/person/day). Using extreme parameters, it is possible to obtain a primary energy index that meets the legal requirements, although unrealistically large proportions of domestic hot water use relative to the total energy balance of the building may marginalize the influence of other components, such as fluctuations in heating, ventilation, or lighting. In the current work, the DHW consumption of three residential buildings was measured to verify the energy consumption for hot water preparation. Investigations were conducted based on the consumption of natural gas for DHW preparation. Experimentally obtained water consumption rates were determined per m2 of a dwelling and per person living in the building. The calculated indicators (0.85 ± 0.005 dm3/m2/day and 27.4 ± 1.4 dm3/person/day) were lower than those used for energy certifications of buildings. The experimentally obtained indicators were used in further theoretical energy assessments of six residential buildings. By adopting the designated indicators, the analyzed buildings met the legally required primary energy value (<70 kWh/m2/year) when using natural gas as a heat source. Applying more realistic DHW consumption values resulted in more accurate energy certifications.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

5010-1 - 5010-22





Article Number: 5010

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

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Ministry points / journal in years 2017-2021


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