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Leader–Follower Approach for Non-Holonomic Mobile Robots Based on Extended Kalman Filter Sensor Data Fusion and Extended On-Board Camera Perception Controlled with Behavior Tree


[ 1 ] Wydział Automatyki, Robotyki i Elektrotechniki, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Instytut Automatyki i Robotyki, Wydział Automatyki, Robotyki i Elektrotechniki, Politechnika Poznańska | [ SzD ] doctoral school student | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.2] Automation, electronics, electrical engineering and space technology

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 23 | Journal number: iss. 21

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • sensor data fusion
  • fiducial marker
  • extended kalman filter
  • mobile robots
  • leader–follower control
  • ROS
  • landmarks
  • behavior tree

EN This paper presents a leader–follower mobile robot control approach using onboard sensors. The follower robot is equipped with an Intel RealSense camera mounted on a rotating platform. Camera observations and ArUco markers are used to localize the robots to each other and relative to the workspace. The rotating platform allows the expansion of the perception range. As a result, the robot can use observations that are not within the camera’s field of view at the same time in the localization process. The decision-making process associated with the control of camera rotation is implemented using behavior trees. In addition, measurements from encoders and IMUs are used to improve the quality of localization. Data fusion is performed using the EKF filter and allows the user to determine the robot’s poses. A 3D-printed cuboidal tower is added to the leader robot with four ArUco markers located on its sides. Fiducial landmarks are placed on vertical surfaces in the workspace to improve the localization process. The experiments were performed to verify the effectiveness of the presented control algorithm. The robot operating system (ROS) was installed on both robots.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

8886-1 - 8886-20





Article Number: 8886

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor


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