Depending on the amount of data to process, file generation may take longer.

If it takes too long to generate, you can limit the data by, for example, reducing the range of years.


Download BibTeX


Assessment of needle–tissue force models based on ex vivo measurements


[ 1 ] Instytut Technologii Mechanicznej, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.9] Mechanical engineering

Year of publication


Published in

Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials

Journal year: 2024 | Journal volume: vol. 150

Article type

scientific article

Publication language



EN Needle insertion is one of the most common procedures in clinical practice. Existing statistics reveal that success rates of needle insertions can be low, leading to potential complications and patient discomfort. Real-time imaging techniques like ultrasound and X-ray can assist in improving precision, but even experienced practitioners may face challenges in visualizing the needle tip. Researchers have proposed models of force interactions during needle insertions into biological tissue to enhance accuracy. This article presents an evaluation of the forces acting on intravenous needles during insertion into skin. The aim was to explore mathematical models, compare them with data from tests on animal specimens, and select the most suitable model for future research. The experimental setup involved conducting needle insertion tests on animal-originated cadavers, using the Brucker Universal Mechanical Tester device, which measured the force response during vertical movement of the needle. The research was divided into 2 stages. In Stage I, force measurements were recorded for both the insertion and extraction phases of the hypodermic needles. The measurements were conducted for several different needle sizes, speed and insertion angles. In Stage II, five different models were examined to determine how well they matched the experimental data. Based on the analysis of fit quality coefficients, the Gordon's exponential model was identified as the best fit to the measured data. The influence of needle size, insertion angle, and insertion speed on the measured force values was confirmed. Different insertion speeds revealed the viscoelastic properties of the tested samples. The presence of the skin layer affected the puncture force and force values for subsequent layers.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

106247-1 - 106247-10





Article Number: 106247

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3,9 [List 2022]

This website uses cookies to remember the authenticated session of the user. For more information, read about Cookies and Privacy Policy.