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Simulation Verification of the Contact Parameter Influence on the Forces’ Course of Cereal Grain Impact against a Stiff Surface


[ 1 ] Instytut Maszyn Roboczych i Pojazdów Samochodowych, Wydział Inżynierii Transportu, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Instytut Maszyn Roboczych i Pojazdów Samochodowych, Wydział Inżynierii Lądowej i Transportu, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 3 ] Instytut Konstrukcji Maszyn, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ E ] pensioner | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.7] Civil engineering and transport
[2.9] Mechanical engineering

Year of publication


Published in

Applied Sciences

Journal year: 2021 | Journal volume: vol. 11 | Journal number: no. 2

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • grain
  • DEM
  • grain impact
  • contact models
  • contact forces

EN The continuous development of computer technology has made it applicable in many scientific fields, including research into a wide range of processes in agricultural machines. It allows the simulation of very complex physical phenomena, including grain motion. A recently discovered discrete element method (DEM) is used for this purpose. It involves direct integration of equations of grain system motion under the action of various forces, the most important of which are contact forces. The method’s accuracy depends mainly on precisely developed mathematical models of contacts. The creation of such models requires empirical validation, an experiment that investigates the course of contact forces at the moment of the impact of the grains. To achieve this, specialised test stations equipped with force and speed sensors were developed. The correct selection of testing equipment and interpretation of results play a decisive role in this type of research. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the force sensor dynamic properties’ influence on the measurement accuracy of the course of the plant grain impact forces against a stiff surface. The issue was examined using the computer simulation method. A proprietary computer software with the main calculation module and data input procedures, which presents results in a graphic form, was used for calculations. From the simulation, graphs of the contact force and force signal from the sensor were obtained. This helped to clearly indicate the essence of the correct selection of parameters used in the tests of sensors, which should be characterised by high resonance frequency.

Pages (from - to)

466-1 - 466-12





article number: 466

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Full text of article

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