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Effectiveness of butanol and deposit control additive in fuel to reduce deposits of gasoline direct injection engine injectors


[ 1 ] Instytut Silników Spalinowych i Napędów, Wydział Inżynierii Lądowej i Transportu, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Instytut Maszyn Roboczych i Pojazdów Samochodowych, Wydział Inżynierii Lądowej i Transportu, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.7] Civil engineering, geodesy and transport

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 16 | Journal number: iss. 1

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • GDI engine
  • injector deposition
  • butanol
  • DCA
  • fuel atomization quality

EN Modern internal combustion engines are designed to meet new emission standards and reduce fuel consumption. The wide application of direct fuel injection is associated with the problem of injector contamination. It leads to a deterioration of the engine’s environmental performance. The paper aims to evaluate the effect of applying gasoline–butanol blends and appropriate additives on the formation of injector deposits. The research involved testing the engine on a dynamometer, evaluating the injector tips visually at 1000× magnification, and registering the fuel spray using high-speed imaging techniques with a laser and halogen lighting source. The effect of engine operating with the reference fuel was to coke the injector tip with a linear pattern. It increased the linear injection time to keep the engine’s operating point constant over the 48 h test. The application of 20% (v/v) butanol reduced deposit formation. The best scavenging results were obtained by extending the engine operating time by the next 24 h and using a cleaning procedure. The procedure included a cleaning additive in addition to butanol. Among the cases analyzed, a combination of butanol and DCA (Deposit Control Additive) was the best method for injector patency restoration.

Pages (from - to)

77-1 - 77-18





article number: 77

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final author's version

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Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3,2 [List 2022]

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