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The effect of hybridization of fire retarded epoxy/flax-cotton fiber laminates by expanded vermiculite: Structure-property relationship study


[ 1 ] Instytut Technologii Materiałów, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee | [ S ] student | [ SzD ] doctoral school student

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.8] Mechanical engineering

Year of publication


Published in

Advanced Industrial and Engineering Polymer Research

Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: in press

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • epoxy resin
  • composites
  • hybridization
  • natural fibers
  • vermiculite
  • flammability

EN The study describes the hybridization of epoxy/flax-cotton (EP/FF) composites containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) with micrometric expanded vermiculite (VMT) (1-10 wt%). The efficiency of hybridization of flame retardant epoxy/flax-cotton composites was assessed by performing static tensile and flexural strength evaluation, supplemented by impact strength measurements of the composites. Moreover, thermal and thermomechanical analyses (DMA, DSC, and TGA) were performed. Epoxy composites were subjected to flammability using a PCFC microcalorimeter and cone calorimeter measurement to assess the burning behavior of composites. The introduction of the low-cost plate-shaped filler resulted in several favorable thermal effects while deteriorating the structure of the composite. The addition of small amounts of vermiculite (1-2 wt%) into the matrix modified with APP enabled the reduction of heat release rate (HRR) and total heat release (THR) by 60% and 20%, respectively. The comprehensive structure-properties analysis determined the critical filler contents, yielding synergistic flame-retardant effects with a limited negative impact on the composites' performance.

Date of online publication





License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final author's version

Date of Open Access to the publication

in press

Ministry points / journal


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