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Growth Kinetics, Microstructure Evolution, and Some Mechanical Properties of Boride Layers Produced on X165CrV12 Tool Steel


[ 1 ] Instytut Inżynierii Materiałowej, Wydział Inżynierii Materiałowej i Fizyki Technicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.8] Materials engineering

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 16 | Journal number: iss. 1

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • powder-pack boriding
  • growth kinetics of borided layers
  • hardness
  • nanomechanical properties
  • wear resistance
  • tool steel

EN The powder-pack boriding technique with an open retort was used to form borided layers on X165CrV12 tool steel. The process was carried out at 1123, 1173, and 1223 K for 3, 6, and 9 h. As a result of boriding the high-chromium substrate, the produced layers consisted of three zones: an outer FeB layer, an inner Fe2B layer, and a transition zone, below which the substrate material was present. Depending on the applied parameters of boriding, the total thickness of the borided layers ranged from 12.45 to 78.76 µm. The increased temperature, as well as longer duration, was accompanied by an increase in the thickness of the FeB zone and the total layer thickness. The integral diffusion model was utilized to kinetically describe the time evolution of the thickness of the FeB and (FeB + Fe2B) layers grown on the surface of powder-pack borided X165CrV12 steel. The activation energy of boron for the FeB phase was lower than that for the Fe2B phase. This suggested that the FeB phase could be formed before the Fe2B phase appeared in the microstructure. The high chromium concentration in X165CrV12 steel led to the formation of chromium borides in the borided layer, which increased the hardness (21.88 ± 1.35 GPa for FeB zone, 17.45 ± 1.20 GPa for Fe2B zone) and Young’s modulus (386.27 ± 27.04 GPa for FeB zone, 339.75 ± 17.44 GPa for Fe2B zone). The presence of the transition zone resulted from the accumulation of chromium and carbon atoms at the interface between the tips of Fe2B needles and the substrate material. The presence of hard iron and chromium borides provided significant improvement in the wear resistance of X165CrV12 steel. The powder-pack borided steel was characterized by a four times lower mass wear intensity factor and nine times lower ratio of mass loss to the length or wear path compared to the non-borided material.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

26-1 - 26-28





Article number: 26

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3,4 [List 2022]

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