Depending on the amount of data to process, file generation may take longer.

If it takes too long to generate, you can limit the data by, for example, reducing the range of years.


Download file Download BibTeX


Switching Operations in 110 kV Networks in the Context of Synchro-Check and Mitigation of Switching Stress by Utilizing Proper Control of Renewables and Energy Storages


[ 1 ] Instytut Elektroenergetyki, Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska i Energetyki, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.10] Environmental engineering, mining and energy

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 16 | Journal number: iss. 18

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • energy storage
  • switching operation
  • synchro-check
  • synchronism
  • renewable
  • PV plant

EN Synchro-check (SC) relays are devices that control synchronization between different fragments of power system networks. Synchronism is monitored by controlling the voltage amplitude, angle, and frequency differences. The goal of monitoring is to avoid dangerous transients after the circuit breaker (CB) closing, which occur when the differences between the voltage, angle, and frequency at both sides of the CB are above the threshold. Although the idea of SC is straightforward, one needs to realize that blocking of the CB closing may cause even more severe issues, i.e., the deterioration of power system stability and safety. The conflicting goals of the switching operation result in many different interpretations, regarding the recommended settings and utilization of the SC relays in different locations of power system networks. The paper presents considerations connected with switching operations in power systems, in particular, in 110 kV networks. Different problems connected with switching operations are highlighted and described. Moreover, the switching-relevant parameters and switching constraints are provided. Further, the simulation results connected with switching operations are presented, the realistic possible voltage and angle differences before switching operations are provided, and the impacts of mitigation measures—renewables and energy storage—are estimated. Finally, the proposed procedures and algorithms of switching stress mitigation are provided.

Pages (from - to)

6434-1 - 6434-21




License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Full text of article

Download file

Access level to full text


Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3.2 [List 2022]

This website uses cookies to remember the authenticated session of the user. For more information, read about Cookies and Privacy Policy.