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Article

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Title

Fire-Retardant Flexible Foamed Polyurethane (PU)-Based Composites: Armed and Charmed Ground Tire Rubber (GTR) Particles

Authors

[ 1 ] Instytut Technologii Materiałów, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Instytut Inżynierii Materiałowej, Wydział Inżynierii Materiałowej i Fizyki Technicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.8] Materials engineering
[2.9] Mechanical engineering
[7.6] Chemical sciences

Year of publication

2024

Published in

Polymers

Journal year: 2024 | Journal volume: vol. 16 | Journal number: iss. 5

Article type

scientific article

Publication language

english

Keywords
EN
  • polyurethane foam
  • composites
  • ground tire rubber
  • filler modification
  • flame retardancy
  • flammability
Abstract

EN Inadequate fire resistance of polymers raises questions about their advanced applications. Flexible polyurethane (PU) foams have myriad applications but inherently suffer from very high flammability. Because of the dependency of the ultimate properties (mechanical and damping performance) of PU foams on their cellular structure, reinforcement of PU with additives brings about further concerns. Though they are highly flammable and known for their environmental consequences, rubber wastes are desired from a circularity standpoint, which can also improve the mechanical properties of PU foams. In this work, melamine cyanurate (MC), melamine polyphosphate (MPP), and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) are used as well-known flame retardants (FRs) to develop highly fire-retardant ground tire rubber (GTR) particles for flexible PU foams. Analysis of the burning behavior of the resulting PU/GTR composites revealed that the armed GTR particles endowed PU with reduced flammability expressed by over 30% increase in limiting oxygen index, 50% drop in peak heat release rate, as well as reduced smoke generation. The Flame Retardancy Index (FRI) was used to classify and label PU/GTR composites such that the amount of GTR was found to be more important than that of FR type. The wide range of FRI (0.94–7.56), taking Poor to Good performance labels, was indicative of the sensitivity of flame retardancy to the hybridization of FR with GTR components, a feature of practicality. The results are promising for fire protection requirements in buildings; however, the flammability reduction was achieved at the expense of mechanical and thermal insulation performance.

Pages (from - to)

656-1 - 656-19

DOI

10.3390/polym16050656

URL

https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4360/16/5/656

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal

100

Impact Factor

5 [List 2022]

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