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Sliding Layer Formation during Tribological Contact between Expanded Graphite and Stainless Steel—A Pilot Study


[ 1 ] Instytut Maszyn Roboczych i Pojazdów Samochodowych, Wydział Inżynierii Lądowej i Transportu, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.7] Civil engineering, geodesy and transport

Year of publication


Published in

Applied Sciences

Journal year: 2024 | Journal volume: vol. 14 | Journal number: iss. 11

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • tribology
  • expanded graphite
  • stainless steel
  • sliding layer
  • material transfer
  • dry and moist conditions

EN The sliding layer created during operation of the expanded graphite–steel combination has had a huge impact on the effectiveness of the friction process, and thus on the sustainable development of society. Knowledge of the factors determining the properties of the sliding layer will make it possible to reduce friction resistance in the future through the proper design and selection of sliding pairs for given applications. This paper studies the effect of the moisture content of expanded graphite on the formation of a sliding layer on a stainless steel surface. The tests were carried out in static contact for 30 s and dynamic contact for 15 and 30 min, for loads of 10, 20, and 30 N and speeds of 25 and 50 mm/s. To determine the changes in surface geometry due to material transfer, the Ra roughness value of the surface of stainless steel samples was measured. In order to realize the purpose of the work and evaluate the effect of moist rings on the resulting sliding layer, the results of the surface roughness of stainless steel samples working with dry and moist graphite rings were compiled. The obtained results show that the presence of water in the stainless steel-expanded graphite friction node affects the formation of a sliding layer. The resulting layer reduces the surface roughness of the cooperating materials and prevents their accelerated wear. After 5 min of work with the water-soaked graphite counter-sample, depending on the applied friction conditions, a reduction in the surface roughness of the stainless steel sample was achieved in the range of 11–18% compared to the initial value. After 30 min of operation, the surface roughness decreased by 3 to 25%. Pilot studies have shown that operating conditions influence the formation of a sliding layer in the stainless steel-expanded graphite tribological contact. This confirms the validity of conducting further research in this area.

Pages (from - to)

4497-1 - 4497-15





Article number: 4497

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

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Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

2,5 [List 2023]

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