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Comprehensive Investigation of Stoichiometry–Structure–Performance Relationships in Flexible Polyurethane Foams


[ 1 ] Instytut Inżynierii Materiałowej, Wydział Inżynierii Materiałowej i Fizyki Technicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Instytut Technologii Materiałów, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 3 ] Instytut Mechaniki Stosowanej, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.8] Materials engineering
[2.9] Mechanical engineering

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: vol. 14 | Journal number: iss. 18

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • flexible polyurethane foams
  • isocyanate index
  • cellular structure
  • mechanical properties
  • thermal properties
  • sound absorption
  • thermal insulation

EN Polyurethane (PU) foams are versatile materials with a broad application range. Their performance is driven by the stoichiometry of polymerization reaction, which has been investigated in several works. However, the analysis was often limited only to selected properties and compared samples differing in apparent density, significantly influencing their performance. In the bigger picture, there is still a lack of comprehensive studies dealing with the stoichiometry impact on PU foams’ performance. Herein, flexible PU foams with a similar apparent density but differing in the isocyanate index (IIso) (from 0.80 to 1.20) were prepared. The stoichiometry–structure–performance relationships were investigated considering cellular and chemical structure, as well as the static and dynamic mechanical properties, thermal stability, thermal insulation, and acoustic performance. For IIso of 1.00, the biggest cell diameters of 274 µm were noted, which was 21–25% higher compared to 0.80 and 1.20 values. Increasing IIso reduced open cell content from 83.1 to 22.4%, which, combined with stiffening of structure (rise of modulus from 63 to 2787 kPa) resulting from crosslinking, limited the sound suppression ability around five times. On the other hand, it significantly strengthened the material, increasing tensile and compressive strength 4 and 13 times, respectively. Changes in the foams’ performance were also induced by the glass transition temperature shift from 6.1 to 31.7 °C, resulting from a greater extent of urethane groups’ generation and additional isocyanate reactions. Generally, the presented work provides important insights into preparing flexible PU foams and could be very useful for the future development of these materials.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

3813-1 - 3813-20




License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor


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