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Management of ground tire rubber waste by incorporation into polyurethane-based composite foams


[ 1 ] Instytut Technologii Materiałów, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Instytut Inżynierii Materiałowej, Wydział Inżynierii Materiałowej i Fizyki Technicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 3 ] Instytut Mechaniki Stosowanej, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.8] Materials engineering
[2.9] Mechanical engineering

Year of publication


Published in

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: in press

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • Ground tire rubber
  • Polyurethane foams
  • Filler modifcation
  • Zinc borate
  • Composites
  • Volatile organic compounds
  • Emissions
  • Gas chromatography

EN Rapid economic growth implicated the developing multiple industry sectors, including the automotive branch, increasing waste generation since recycling and utilization methods have not been established simultaneously. A very severe threat is the generation of enormous amounts of post-consumer tires considered burdensome waste, e.g., due to the substantial emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Therefore, it is essential to develop novel, environmentally friendly methods for their utilization, which would hinder their environmental impacts. One of the most promising approaches is shredding, resulting in the generation of ground tire rubber (GTR), which can be introduced into polymeric materials as filler. The presented work is related to the thermomechanical treatment of GTR in a twin-screw extruder with zinc borate, whose incorporation is aimed to enhance shear forces within the extruder barrel. Modified GTR was introduced into flexible polyurethane (PU) foams, and the impact of modification parameters on the cellular structure, static and dynamic mechanical performance, thermal stability, as well as thermal insulation, and acoustic properties was investigated. Emissions of VOCs from applied fillers and prepared composites were monitored and evaluated. Depending on the treatment parameters, beneficial changes in foams’ cellular structure were noted, which enhanced their thermal insulation performance, mechanical strength, and thermal stability. It was proven that the proposed method of GTR thermomechanical treatment assisted by zinc borate particles might benefit the performance of flexible PU foamed composites and hinder VOC emissions, which could broaden the application range of GTR and provide novel ways for its efficient utilization.

Date of online publication





License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

czasopismo hybrydowe

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

in press

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

5,8 [List 2022]

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