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Application of phosphonium deep eutectic solvents as extractants in ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for preconcentration of trace amounts of herbicides in drainage ditches waters


[ 1 ] Instytut Chemii i Elektrochemii Technicznej, Wydział Technologii Chemicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee | [ S ] student

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[6.5] Chemical sciences

Year of publication


Published in

Journal of Separation Science

Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 46 | Journal number: iss. 2

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • central composite design
  • deep eutectic solvent
  • dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction
  • herbicides
  • ultrasound probe

EN In this study, an efficient preconcentration method was presented that is based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction taking the advantage of newly synthesized phosphonium deep eutectic solvents used as extractants and ultrasound probe as a dispersing agent. The extracts obtained were analyzed by highperformance liquid chromatography. To optimize the five most important factors for the microextraction procedure a central composite design plan was used. Under optimal conditions (140 μl of extractant, 60 mg of NaCl, pH = 2.0, 120 s of extraction time with ultrasound probe as the dispersing agent, 16 min of centrifugation for phase separation), the proposed method allowed to achieve good precision with RSD between 3.2% and 9.7% at 1.0, 5.0 and 40.0 ng ml levels. The preconcentration factors were equal to 42, 39, and 41, and the limits of detection 0.128, 0.103, and 0.135 ng/ml for dicamba, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxypropionic acid, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of chlorophenoxy acid herbicides in water samples from drainage ditches with a good recovery in the range of 70%–93%.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

2200682-1 - 2200682-13





Article number: 2200682

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3.614 [List 2021]

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