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Influence of Inorganic Additives on the Surface Characteristics, Hardness, Friction and Wear Behavior of Polyethylene Matrix Composites


[ 1 ] Instytut Technologii Mechanicznej, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Instytut Inżynierii Materiałowej, Wydział Inżynierii Materiałowej i Fizyki Technicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 3 ] Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee | [ S ] student

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.8] Materials engineering
[2.9] Mechanical engineering

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 16 | Journal number: iss. 14

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • polyethylene
  • hBN
  • titanium
  • friction
  • surface analysis

EN The aim of this research was to analyze the effect of inorganic additives on the tribological properties of the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix composite surface. Titanium (Ti) and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) were added in different mass fractions. The samples were produced by pressing a pre-prepared mixture of granules. The composite samples with the following mass fractions of additives were fabricated: 5% hBN, 10% hBN, 28% Ti–2% hBN, 23% Ti–7% hBN, and 20% Ti–10% hBN. An even distribution of individual additives’ concentrations was confirmed. Observations of morphology, surface topography, hardness, and tribological measurements were conducted using reciprocating motion tests with the “pin-on-flat” and rotational tests with the “pin-on-disc” configuration. Subsequently, microscopic observations and measurements of the wear track profile were carried out. Additionally, geometry parameters of the contacting elastic body were calculated for various counter-samples. It was found that the Shore D hardness of samples containing Ti and hBN increased with the Ti content, while the coefficient of friction (COF) value decreased. The addition of hBN alone did not significantly affect the hardness, regardless of the ratio, while the COF increased with the increasing hBN content. The COF value doubled with the addition of 10% hBN (COF = 0.22), whereas the addition of 90% Ti–10% hBN resulted in a decrease in the COF value, to COF = 0.83. The highest hardness value was obtained for the sample containing 28% Ti–2% hBN (66.5), while the lowest was for the sample containing 10% hBN (63.2). The wear track analysis, including its height and width caused by deformation, was detected using a focal differentiation microscope and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, EDS maps were generated to determine the wear characteristics of the composite.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

4960-1 - 4960-21





Article Number: 4960

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3.4 [List 2022]

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