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Deep eutectic solvent-assisted fabrication of bioinspired 3D carbon–calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone tissue engineering


[ 1 ] Instytut Technologii i Inżynierii Chemicznej, Wydział Technologii Chemicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Instytut Inżynierii Materiałowej, Wydział Inżynierii Materiałowej i Fizyki Technicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee | [ D ] phd student

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.8] Materials engineering
[7.6] Chemical sciences

Year of publication


Published in

RSC Advances

Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 13 | Journal number: iss. 32

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • deep eutectic solvents
  • spongin
  • carbon
  • tissue engineering

EN Tissue engineering is a burgeoning field focused on repairing damaged tissues through the combination of bodily cells with highly porous scaffold biomaterials, which serve as templates for tissue regeneration, thus facilitating the growth of new tissue. Carbon materials, constituting an emerging class of superior materials, are currently experiencing remarkable scientific and technological advancements. Consequently, the development of novel 3D carbon-based composite materials has become significant for biomedicine. There is an urgent need for the development of hybrids that will combine the unique bioactivity of ceramics with the performance of carbonaceous materials. Considering these requirements, herein, we propose a straightforward method of producing a 3D carbon-based scaffold that resembles the structural features of spongin, even on the nanometric level of their hierarchical organization. The modification of spongin with calcium phosphate was achieved in a deep eutectic solvent (choline chloride : urea, 1 : 2). The holistic characterization of the scaffolds confirms their remarkable structural features (i.e., porosity, connectivity), along with the biocompatibility of a-tricalcium phosphate (a-TCP), rendering them a promising candidate for stem cell-based tissue-engineering. Culturing human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on the surface of the biomimetic scaffold further verifies its growth-facilitating properties, promoting the differentiation of these cells in the osteogenesis direction. ALP activity was significantly higher in osteogenic medium compared to proliferation, indicating the differentiation of hMSC towards osteoblasts. However, no significant difference between C and C–aTCP in the same medium type was observed.

Pages (from - to)

21971 - 21981




License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Full text of article

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Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

3,9 [List 2022]

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