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Heat Transfer Analysis of 3D Printed Wax Injection Mold Used in Investment Casting


[ 1 ] Instytut Mechaniki Stosowanej, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Instytut Technologii Materiałów, Wydział Inżynierii Mechanicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 3 ] Instytut Energetyki Cieplnej, Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska i Energetyki, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.9] Mechanical engineering
[2.10] Environmental engineering, mining and energy

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: vol. 15 | Journal number: iss. 19

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • casting
  • wax injection molds
  • resin
  • cooling
  • finite element method (FEM)
  • heat transfer

EN Investment casting is one of the precise casting methods where disposable wax patterns made in wax injection molds are used to make a casting mold. The production capacity of precision foundry is determined by the time taken for producing wax patterns, which depends on the time taken for wax solidification. Wax injection molds are usually made of aluminum or copper alloys with the use of expensive and time-consuming computer numerical control (CNC) processing, which makes low-volume production unprofitable. To reduce these costs, the authors present a heat transfer analysis of a 3D printed wax injection mold. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the photopolymer resin, the influence of different cooling channels’ shapes was investigated to improve the time of the manufacturing process. Transient thermal analysis was performed using COMSOL software based on the finite element method (FEM) and included a simulation of wax injection mold cooling with cold air (−23 °C), water, and without cooling. The analysis showed that use of cooling channels in the case of photopolymer material significantly reduces the solidification time of the sample (about 10 s shorter), and that under certain conditions, it is possible to obtain better cooling than obtained with the aluminum reference wax injection mold (after approximately 25–30 s). This approach allows to reduce the production costs of low-volume castings.

Pages (from - to)

6545-1 - 6545-25





article number: 6545

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

publisher's website

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

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