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2,4-D versus 2,4-D based ionic liquids: Effect of cation on herbicide biodegradation, tfdA genes abundance and microbiome changes during soil bioaugmentation


[ 1 ] Instytut Technologii i Inżynierii Chemicznej, Wydział Technologii Chemicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Instytut Chemii i Elektrochemii Technicznej, Wydział Technologii Chemicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ D ] phd student | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[7.6] Chemical sciences

Year of publication


Published in

Journal of Hazardous Materials

Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 452

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • Cationic surfactants
  • Community structure
  • Degradation
  • Ionic liquids (ILs)
  • Mineralization
  • Toxicity

EN The commercial formulations of herbicides rely on surfactants which increase the efficiency of active substance. Herbicidal ionic liquids (ILs), in which cationic surfactants are combined with herbicidal anions, allow for additives’ reduction and ensure very good herbicide performance with lower doses. We aimed to test the impact of synthetic and natural cations on biological degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Although primary biodegradation was high, the mineralization in agricultural soil indicated incomplete conversion of ILs to CO2. Even the introduction of naturally-derived cations resulted in an increase in the herbicide’s half-lives – from 32 days for [Na][2,4-D] to 120 days for [Chol][2,4-D] and 300 days for the synthetic tetramethylammonium derivative [TMA][2,4-D]. Bioaugmentation with 2,4-D-degrading strains improves the herbicides’ degradation, which was reflected by higher abundance of tfdA genes. Microbial community analysis confirmed that hydrophobic cationic surfactants, even those based on natural compounds, played a negative role on microbial biodiversity. Our study provides a valuable indication for further research related to the production of a new generation of environmentally friendly compounds. Moreover, the results shed a new light on the ionic liquids as independent mixtures of ions in the environment, as opposed to treating them as new type of environmental pollutants.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

131209-1 - 131209-13





Article number: 131209

Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

13,6 [List 2022]

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