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Review of Soft Actuators Controlled with Electrical Stimuli: IPMC, DEAP, and MRE


[ 1 ] Instytut Automatyki i Robotyki, Wydział Automatyki, Robotyki i Elektrotechniki, Politechnika Poznańska | [ 2 ] Instytut Technologii i Inżynierii Chemicznej, Wydział Technologii Chemicznej, Politechnika Poznańska | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[2.2] Automation, electronics, electrical engineering and space technology
[7.6] Chemical sciences

Year of publication


Published in

Applied Sciences

Journal year: 2023 | Journal volume: vol. 13 | Journal number: iss. 3

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • soft actuators
  • ionic polymer metal composite
  • magnetorheological elastomers
  • dielectric electroactive polymers

EN Soft actuators have been developed for a variety of applications, including soft grippers, artificial muscles, wearables, tactile devices, and medical devices. In this review, we will discuss a group of chemical materials and their robotic applications in soft actuators controlled with electrical stimuli. Soft actuators provide a deformable body and allow interaction with the environment to achieve the desired actuation pattern. We will also discuss the principles of operation and functionality and focus on important real-life applications of three groups of soft actuators: ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMCs), dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs), and magnetorheological elastomers (MREs). This review article aims to provide researchers interested in the field of soft robotics with a guide to various state-of-the-art chemistry methods used in electrically activated soft actuators, as well as the application areas for such devices.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

1651-1 - 1651-20





Article number: 1651

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Release date


Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Full text of article

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Ministry points / journal


Impact Factor

2,7 [List 2022]

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